Type 2 Diabetes and Pre-diabetes

Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. There are 2 main types of diabetes:                                                                                                             

Type 1 diabetes 

Were the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin.

Type 2 diabetes

Where the body does not produce enough insulin, or the body's cells do not react to insulin. Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1. In the UK, around 90% of all adults with diabetes have type 2.


Many more people have blood sugar levels above the normal range, but not high enough to be diagnosed as having diabetes.

This is sometimes known as pre-diabetes. If your blood sugar level is above the normal range, your risk of developing full-blown diabetes is increased.

It is very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as early as possible because it will get progressively worse if left untreated.

Getting diagnosed

Diabetes and pre-diabetes are diagnosed by a specific blood test, the HbA1C. The HbA1C measures the amount of sugar in your blood that sticks to your red blood cells. 

If the level is less than 42 (mmol/mol) it is normal.

Between 42 and 48 is pre-diabetes.

Over 48 is diabetes.

The HbA1C blood test is a much more accurate way of checking blood sugar levels compared to a finger prick test. Two HbA1c tests should be taken to make sure that the diagnosis is correct.

Downloads and useful links

Diabetes Conversion to Insulin

Diabetes - Type 2: Food Fact Sheet

Diabetes Dietary advice for prediabetes

Eating Well with diabetes

Glycaemic Index (GI): Food Fact Sheet

Other useful websites


For further information, or if you have any concerns regarding your condition, please contact the service.